Current day businesses have multiple dependencies and risks across many dimensions. The system, which includes natural, produced, human and social capital, can now be described and measured to support improved outcomes. Measurement and integration of multiple capitals depends on spatial accounting to hold it all together.
For example, faced with climate change many organisations have defined resilience and sustainability as key, long term outcomes. Operational definition of these holistic outcomes requires an interdependent mix of natural, social, individual and produced capital goals and metrics. By framing these interdependencies in terms of spatially defined actions and outcomes, InCA enables empirically based definition of an optimum capital investment mix, while also illuminating and guiding the design and assessment of holistically integrated programs and initiatives.